1. Classification of burns
Classification of burns can be according to the degree of shallow depth or can also be divided according to the division of 5 degrees.
1.1 Classification by depth
– Superficial burns (only 1 of the following 3 signs is needed to help diagnose):
+ There are nodules.
+ The burn lesion background is pink or red.
+ There is pain in the burn area.
– Deep burns (only 1 of the following 3 signs is enough to help diagnose):
+ There is burn necrosis: wet necrosis (white like boiled meat, gray-white, blue-gray when there is an infection, edema is higher than healthy skin, soft and wet to the touch); or dry necrosis (black or yellow-gray color, more concave than healthy skin, dry to the touch, with signs of vascular occlusion below).
Complete loss of pain sensation in the burn area.
+ There are signs in the burn area such as: exposing muscles, blood vessels, bones, joints, tendons or other organs under the skin.
1.2 Classification of burns according to the division of 5 degrees
– First degree burns : red skin, burning pain, mild edema.
– Second degree burns : thin dome burn, lemon yellow blister fluid, pale pink background, no bleeding, very painful touching the burn background.
– Third degree burns : thick dome blisters, the blister fluid may be pink, the background of the burn may be red, it may bleed, and it may be painful to touch the base of the burn.
– IV degree burns : white wet necrosis, raised above normal skin, dark gray dry necrosis concave thick and hard, with blood vessels under the skin blocked. Hair can be easily removed from the skin or poked with a sharp needle into the necrotic clusters, the patient does not feel pain.
– V-degree burns : to musculoskeletal tendons and deep viscera.
2. Calculate the area of the burn
2.1 Using the number 9 method in adults
|– Head face and neck: 9%
– Front body: 18%
– Back body and 2 buttocks: 18%
– One upper limb: 9%
– One lower limb: 18%
– External genitalia: 1%
2.2 Using the number method 1,3,6,9,18 in adults
– 1%: pubic, palmar, perineum, neck of the neck
– 3%: wings, forearms, facial skin, scalp, 1 foot
– 9%: thighs, 1 upper limb
-18%: 1 lower limb, front trunk, back body (both buttocks)
2.3 Calculating the area of burns in children
The rest of the body is calculated the same way as in adults.
2.4 Method of patient’s hand
– Use the patient’s hand to calculate the burn area.
– A patient’s hand is equivalent to 1%
– This method is not absolutely accurate but convenient, easy to remember, easy to use and helps to quickly estimate the burn area.